The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) conducted a research project to investigate the performance of agriculturally derived residue materials in bioreactors. This included a comparison of the materials to wood chips at two temperatures, 59 and 35°F (15 and 2°C), identified as Run 1 and Run 2, respectively, in continuous flow column experiments. The investigation measured nitrate removal, microbial abundance and dissolved nitrous oxide gas. In a separate experiment, the hydraulic conductivity of the various materials was determined in a 12-inch diameter by 8-foot long permeameter constructed for this project.
To learn more, download the full report here.